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› NC in Focus. A third population later mixes in t2 generations ago, with proportion frac2. living in South Carolina and Louisiana have at least 2% African ancestry. This is 22% of North Carolina’s total population. An additional , residents identified as black or African American in combination with another race. In total, million individuals identify as black or African-American (alone or in combination), accounting for a total of.
 
 

– The Growing Diversity of Black America | Pew Research Center

 
Under equal ancestral contributions from both males and females, percebt X chromosome should show the same levels of admixture as the genome-wide estimates. Hence, we posit that these individuals represent survey errors rather than true self-reported African Americans. Figure 1.

 

What percent of north carolina population is black – what percent of north carolina population is bl

 
A third population later mixes in t2 generations ago, with proportion frac2. living in South Carolina and Louisiana have at least 2% African ancestry. This is 22% of North Carolina’s total population. An additional , residents identified as black or African American in combination with another race. In total, million individuals identify as black or African-American (alone or in combination), accounting for a total of. Table 1 shows the population of North Carolina at each census from to , inclusive, together with the increase by number and per cent during each.

 
 

– North Carolina – Wikipedia

 
 

A potential source of bias in our estimates is from errors in the ancestry inference algorithm. The inferred segments of African and Native American are uniformly distributed across the genome. Lastly, our recent dates for admixture suggest that introgression probably occurred in the Americas within the last years. Hence, our estimates do not support that the African ancestry in European Americans stems from ancient population events that predate the migrations to the Americas.

For example, gene flow from Africa coinciding with the Moor invasion of the Mediterranean might have introduced African ancestry into the ancestral population of some European Americans. Though such ancient events would probably not lead to inferred African ancestry because our supervised learning algorithm would apply a European label to such segments, it is possible that European population substructure could lead to inferred segments of African ancestry in some European Americans that derive from older historical admixture events, which are not seen in modern Europeans.

However, these events would lead to admixture or introgression of segments several hundred or thousand years old, and our admixture dates for both Native American ancestry and African ancestry point to gene flow within the last 20 generations and is not consistent with any known historical migrations within Europe during this time period.

Correlations between state population proportions and mean ancestry proportions suggest that the numbers of African and Native American individuals in a state might have shaped the ancestries of present-day individuals. For African Americans, the states with the highest mean levels of African ancestry, such as South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida are not those with the highest proportions of African Americans. Given the highly significant statistics in European Americans, surprisingly, in African Americans, the correlation of African ancestry with proportions of African Americans is only marginally significant p value 0.

The correlation of Native American ancestry in African Americans with Latino state population proportion also has a marginal p value of 0. Not all correlations are strongly significant, suggesting that other social or cultural factors influenced levels of ancestry, especially in African Americans.

The transitions between Latino, African American, and European American self-reported identity by proportions of African and Native American ancestry illustrate both the complexity of how one self identifies as well as the overlapping ancestry profiles among groups Figure 5 B. This work demonstrates that the legacy of population migrations and interactions over the last several hundred years is visible in the genetic ancestry of modern individuals living in the US.

Our results suggest that genetic ancestry can be leveraged to augment historical records and inform cultural processes shaping modern populations. Though the majority of European Americans in our study did not carry Native American or African ancestry, even a small proportion of this large population that carry non-European ancestry translates into millions of European Americans who carry African and Native American ancestry.

Our results suggest that the early US history, beginning in the 17 th century around 12 generations ago , might have been a time of many population interactions resulting in admixture.

Large sample sizes, high-density genotype data, and accurate and robust local ancestry estimates allowed us to discern subtle differences in genetic ancestry. In spite of present-day high mobility of individuals, the genetic ancestry of present-day individuals recapitulates historical migration events, known settlement patterns, and admixture processes.

Our findings can inform medical genetic studies. Introgressed Native American and African haplotypes in European Americans might have implications for studies of complex diseases, especially for diseases that vary in prevalence among ancestral populations, can produce subtle population structure that should be carefully controlled for in GWASs, and might impact the distribution of rare variants in studies of whole-genome sequence.

Our results also suggest new avenues for research, such as the potential for including European Americans in admixture mapping. We thank the customers of 23andMe who answered surveys and participated in this research. We are grateful to Dr. Jeffrey C. Long at the University of New Mexico, Dr.

We thank Nick Patterson and Priya Moorjani for helpful statistical discussions on f statistics. Of course, all mistakes and inaccuracies are our own. Am J Hum Genet. Durand , 2 J. Mountain 2. Eric Y. Durand 2 23andMe, Inc. Michael Macpherson. Joanna L. Mountain 2 23andMe, Inc. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Katarzyna Bryc: moc. Received Sep 17; Accepted Nov Document S2. Article plus Supplemental Data.

Abstract Over the past years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade , shaping the early history of what became the United States. Introduction Over the last several hundred years, the United States has been the site of ongoing mixing of peoples of continental populations that were previously separated by geography.

Genotyping Participants were genotyped as described previously. Research Cohorts 23andMe customers were invited to fill out web-based questionnaires, including questions on ancestry and ethnicity, on state of birth, and current zip code of residence. Self-Reported Ancestry It is important to note that ancestry, ethnicity, identity, and race are complex labels that result both from visible traits, such as skin color, and from cultural, economic, geographical, and social factors.

Validation of Self-Reported Identity Survey Results To verify that our self-reported ethnicities were reliable, we examined the consistency of ethnicity survey responses when individuals completed both ancestry and ethnicity surveys.

Geographic Location Collection Self-reported state-of-birth survey data was available for 47, customers of 23andMe. Ancestry Analyses Ancestry Composition We apply Ancestry Composition, a three-step pipeline that efficiently and accurately identifies the ancestral origin of chromosomal segments in admixed individuals, which is described in Durand et al.

Generating the Distribution of Ancestry Tracts We generate ancestry segments as defined as continuous blocks of ancestry, estimating the best guess of ancestry at each window to define segments of each ancestry. Sex Bias in Ancestry Contributions Sex bias in ancestry contributions, often assessed through ancestry of mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups, is also manifested in unequal estimates of ancestry proportions on the X chromosome, which has an inheritance pattern that differs between males and females.

Logistic Regression Modeling of Self-Identity We examine the probabilistic relationship between self-identity and genetically inferred ancestry. Validation of Non-European Ancestry in African Americans and European Americans Although our Ancestry Composition estimates are well calibrated and have been shown to accurately estimate African, European, and Native American ancestry in tests of precision and recall, 33 we were concerned that low levels of non-European ancestry in European Americans that we detected might represent an artifact of Ancestry Composition.

Comparison with Genomes Project Consensus Estimates Comparisons of our estimates with those published by the Genomes Consortium show the high consistency across populations and individuals. Estimates of African and Native American Ancestry in Europeans We looked at whether all individuals who are expected to carry solely European ancestry also have similar rates of detection of non-European ancestry.

Distribution of Ancestry Segment Start Positions Regions of the genome that have structural variation or show strong linkage disequilibrium LD have been shown both to confound admixture mapping and to influence the detection of population substructure in studies using Principal Components Analysis PCA. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Correlations with Population Proportions We find that levels of Native American and African ancestry in 23andMe customers in each state are significantly correlated with the proportion of African Americans and Latinos in each state Figures S11—S Discussion Selection of Populations The ancestries of 23andMe customers, and therefore the demographics of the database used for this study, largely reflect the demographics of the US, as tallied in the US census.

Patterns of Genetic Ancestry of Self-Reported Latinos We estimated that Iberian ancestry composes as much as a third of the European ancestry in Latinos in Florida, New Mexico, and other parts of the Southwest, probably reflecting either early Spanish influence and rule in these regions or recent immigration from Latin America, which might also be associated with higher levels of Iberian ancestry in New York and New Jersey.

Patterns of Genetic Ancestry of Self-Reported European Americans Our estimated rates of non-European ancestry in European Americans suggest that more than six million Americans, who self-identify as European, might carry African ancestry. Robust Estimates of African and Native American Ancestry in African Americans and European Americans Several lines of evidence suggest that Native American and African segments represent true signals of Native American and African introgression that occurred after the transcontinental migrations beginning in the s.

Correlations with Population Proportions Correlations between state population proportions and mean ancestry proportions suggest that the numbers of African and Native American individuals in a state might have shaped the ancestries of present-day individuals. Conclusion This work demonstrates that the legacy of population migrations and interactions over the last several hundred years is visible in the genetic ancestry of modern individuals living in the US.

Acknowledgments We thank the customers of 23andMe who answered surveys and participated in this research. Notes Published: December 18, Supplemental Data Document S1. Article plus Supplemental Data: Click here to view. References 1. Moreno-Estrada A. Human genetics. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits. Parra E. Admixture in North America. In: Suarez-Kurtz G. Pharmacogenomics in Admixed Populations.

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The percentage of firms in North Carolina with paid employees that are black-owned. They received 1. In certain regions of the state, this share is much higher. Need help understanding population change and its impacts on your community or business? Carolina Demography offers demographic research tailored to your needs. Contact us today at demography unc.

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