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LST, Local Standard Time ; LST, Liquid Storage Tank ; LST, Life-Sustaining Treatment ; LST, Lightning Strikes Twice (gaming). What does LST mean? This page is about the various possible meanings of the acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term: LST. ; LST. Local Standard Time.
 
 

What does l s t stand for.Landing Ship, Tank

 

Landing Ship, Tank LST , or tank landing ship , is the naval designation for ships first developed during World War II — to support amphibious operations by carrying tanks , vehicles, cargo, and landing troops directly onto shore with no docks or piers.

This enabled amphibious assaults on almost any beach. The LST had a highly specialized design that enabled ocean crossings as well as shore groundings. The bow had a large door that could open, deploy a ramp and unload vehicles. The LST had a flat keel that allowed the ship to be beached and stay upright.

The twin propellers and rudders had protection from grounding. The first tank-landing ships were built to British requirements by converting existing ships; the UK and the US then collaborated upon a joint design.

The British ships were used in late during the Allied invasion of Algeria, by LSTs participated in the invasion of Sicily and mainland Italy.

In June they were part of the huge invasion fleet for the Normandy landings. The British evacuation from Dunkirk in demonstrated to the Admiralty that the Allies needed relatively large, ocean-going ships that could handle shore-to-shore delivery of tanks and other vehicles in amphibious assaults upon the continent of Europe.

As an interim measure, three 4, to 4,GRT ” Lake tankers “, built to pass over the restrictive bars of Lake Maracaibo , Venezuela , were selected for conversion because of their shallow draft.

As a result, each of the three Boxer , Bruiser , and Thruster ordered in March had a very long ramp stowed behind the bow doors. The ships were built at Harland and Wolff from and completed in Bruiser and Thruster took part in the Salerno landings. All three were intended to be converted to Fighter Direction Ships in order to have ground-controlled interception of enemy aircraft during landing operations but only Boxer was converted.

The U. In November , a small delegation from the Admiralty arrived in the United States to pool ideas with the United States Navy ‘s Bureau of Ships with regard to development of ships and the possibility of building further Boxer s in the US.

As with the standing agreement, these ships would be built by the US so British shipyards could concentrate on building vessels for the Royal Navy. The specifications called for vessels capable of crossing the Atlantic, and the original title given to them was “Atlantic Tank Landing Craft” Atlantic T. Calling a vessel ft 91 m long a “craft” was considered a misnomer and the type was re-christened “Landing Ship, Tank 2 “, or “LST 2 “.

One of the elements provided for sufficient buoyancy in the ships’ sidewalls so that they would float the ship even when the tank deck was flooded. Within a few days, John C. Niedermair of the Bureau of Ships sketched out an awkward looking ship that proved to be the basic design for the more than 1, LST 2 that were built during World War II. To meet the conflicting requirements of deep draft for ocean travel and shallow draft for beaching, the ship was designed with a large ballast system that could be filled for ocean passage and pumped out for beaching operations.

The rough sketch was sent to Britain on 5 November and accepted immediately. The preliminary plans initially called for an LST feet 85 m in length; but, in January , the Bureau of Ships discarded these drawings in favor of specifications for a ship feet 88 m long. Within a month, final working plans were developed that further stretched the overall length to feet m and called for a foot 15 m beam and a minimum draft of 3. This scheme distributed the ship’s weight over a greater area, enabling her to ride higher in the water when in landing trim.

The LST could carry a 2, short tons 1, t load of tanks and vehicles. The larger dimensions also permitted the designers to increase the width of the bow door opening and ramp from 12 to 14 feet 3. Provisions were made for the satisfactory ventilation of the tank space while the tank motors were running, and an elevator was provided to lower vehicles from the main deck to the tank deck for disembarking. The interior of the building was constructed to duplicate all the features found within an actual LST.

Being the home to the Armored Force Board, Fort Knox supplied tanks to run on the inside while Naval architects developed a ventilation system capable of evacuating the well-deck of harmful gases. Testing was completed in three months. This historic building remains at Fort Knox today. Early LST operations required overcoming the 18th-century language of the Articles for the Government of the United States Navy: “He who doth suffer his ships to founder on rocks and shoals shall be punished In three separate acts dated 6 February , 26 May , and 17 December , Congress provided the authority for the construction of LSTs along with a host of other auxiliaries, destroyer escorts , and assorted landing craft.

The enormous building program quickly gathered momentum. Such a high priority was assigned to the construction of LSTs that the previously laid keel of an aircraft carrier was hastily removed to make room for several LSTs to be built in her place.

Twenty-three were in commission by the end of The LST building program was unique in several respects. As soon as the basic design had been developed, contracts were let and construction was commenced in quantity before the completion of a test vessel. Preliminary orders were rushed out verbally or by telegrams, telephone, and air mail letters. The ordering of certain materials actually preceded the completion of design work.

While many heavy equipment items, such as main propulsion machinery, were furnished directly by the Navy, the balance of the procurement was handled centrally by the Material Coordinating Agency—an adjunct of the Bureau of Ships—so that the numerous builders in the program would not have to bid against one another. Through vigorous follow-up action on materials ordered, the agency made possible the completion of construction schedules in record time. The need for LSTs was urgent, and the program enjoyed a high priority throughout the war.

Since most shipbuilding activities were located in coastal yards that were mainly used for construction of large, deep-draft ships, new construction facilities for the LSTs were established along inland waterways, some converted from heavy-industry plants, such as steel fabrication yards.

Shifting the vessels was complicated by bridges across waterways, many of which were modified by the Navy to permit passage. A dedicated Navy “Ferry Command” orchestrated the transportation of newly constructed ships to coastal ports for final fitting out. Of the 1, LSTs built during the war, were supplied by five “cornfield shipyards” in the Middle West. Dravo Corporation ‘s facility at Neville Island, Pennsylvania , designated the lead shipyard for the project, built vessels and developed fabrication techniques that reduced construction time and costs at all of the LST shipyards.

By , the construction time for an LST had been reduced to four months. By the end of the war, this had been cut to two months. Considerable effort was expended to hold the ship’s design constant, but, by mid, operating experience led to the incorporation of certain changes in the new ships.

From LST, the elevator to transfer equipment between the tank deck and the main deck was replaced with a 12 by 32 ft 3. This allowed vehicles to be driven directly from the main deck down to the tank deck and then across the bow ramp to the beach or causeway, speeding the process of disembarkation.

As such, it was decided to build a further 80 of the ships in the UK and Canada to be available in the spring of Two major problems made a redesign necessary. The preferred light weight medium-speed locomotive type Electro-Motive Diesel diesel engines were not immediately available. Staff wanted more power and higher speeds if possible, which the EMD engines could have provided.

However, the only engines available were very heavy steam reciprocating engines from frigates that had been cancelled. These delivered two and a half times the power of the diesels. So large were they that significant changes had to be made to accommodate them. Lack of welded construction facilities meant that the hull had to be riveted.

This combination of heavy hull and heavy engines meant that speed was only 3 knots 5. At the same time, other improvements were made—as well as simplifications required so most of the structure could be assembled with rivets. The cutaway hard chine that had been dropped in the American version of the Mark 2 vessels was restored.

The tank deck, which was above the waterline, was made parallel to the keel , there was to be no round down to the upper deck, and the ship was enlarged to accommodate the more bulky machinery. When the design commenced, engineers knew that the beaches where the ships were expected to land would be very flat, but it was not possible to produce a satisfactory vessel with a 3 ft 0. It was known that the slope would often result in the LST grounding aft on a shallow beach, resulting in the vehicles being discharged into comparatively deep water.

Various methods had been investigated to overcome the problem, but heavy grounding skegs and the N. When offloading, the rafts were secured to the fore end of the ship, and the load discharged directly onto the shore, or towed on the raft to the shore. The ships were fitted out for service in both very cold and tropical conditions. The accommodation provided for both crew and army personnel was greatly improved compared with LST 2.

The main hazard, apart from enemy action, was fire on the tank deck. Fire sprinklers were provided, but the water drenching system installed in later American vessels could not be provided. The bow door arrangements were similar to the LST 2 , but the design arranged the bow ramp in two parts in an attempt to increase the number of beaches where direct discharge would be possible.

The machinery for operating the bow doors and ramp were electrical, but otherwise, steam auxiliaries replaced the electrical gear on the LST 2. The general arrangements of the tank deck were similar, but the design increased headroom and added a ramp to the top deck, as in later LST 2 s. Provision was made for carrying LCA on gravity davits instead of the American built assault boats.

The arrangements were generally an improvement over the LST 2 , but suffered from a deeper draught, and, to some extent, from the haste of construction.

The first orders were placed in December with British builders, and 35 with Canadian builders. Swan Hunter delivered the first ships in December During , follow up orders were placed in Canada for a further These programmes were in full swing when the war ended, but not all vessels were completed. Fifteen ton tanks or 27 ton tanks could be carried on the tank deck with an additional fourteen lorries on the weather deck.

Steam was supplied by a pair of Admiralty pattern 3-drum water-tube type boilers , working at pounds per square inch 1, kPa. The main engines were of the 4-cylinder triple expansion 4-crank type, balanced on the Yarrow -Tweedy-Slick system, the cylinders being as follows:.

The common stroke was 30 inches mm. The piston and slide valve rods were all fitted with metallic packing to the stuffing boxes, and all pistons fitted with packing rings and springs. The high-pressure valve was of the piston type, whilst the remaining ones were of the balanced type. The main engines were designed to develop 2, hp 2, kW at rpm continuously. With the ships being twin screw, the engines were fitted with a shaft coupling to the crank shaft at the forward end, allowing the engine to be turned end to end to suit either port or starboard side fitting.

The LCT needed lifting onto the deck of the ship, being carried on wedge-shaped support blocks; at the time of launching she was set down on the “launch ways” by simply slacking off bolts in the wedge blocks, allowing the launch way to take the weight.

To carry out a launch, the LST was simply heeled over about 11 degrees by careful flooding of tanks in the hull. The height of the drop was about 10 ft 3. This method was used for moving LCT5s from Britain to the Far East, although there seems to be no reference to LST 3 s being used, most being completed late in or after the war. Even at the end of the war there was a need for more ships able to carry minor landing craft, and two of the LST 3 s then completing were specially fitted to carry LCM 7.

 

Ship Abbreviations and Symbols.LST – What does LST stand for? The Free Dictionary

 

However, the only engines available were very heavy steam reciprocating engines from frigates that had been cancelled. These delivered two and a half times the power of the diesels.

So large were they that significant changes had to be made to accommodate them. Lack of welded construction facilities meant that the hull had to be riveted. This combination of heavy hull and heavy engines meant that speed was only 3 knots 5.

At the same time, other improvements were made—as well as simplifications required so most of the structure could be assembled with rivets. The cutaway hard chine that had been dropped in the American version of the Mark 2 vessels was restored. The tank deck, which was above the waterline, was made parallel to the keel , there was to be no round down to the upper deck, and the ship was enlarged to accommodate the more bulky machinery.

When the design commenced, engineers knew that the beaches where the ships were expected to land would be very flat, but it was not possible to produce a satisfactory vessel with a 3 ft 0. It was known that the slope would often result in the LST grounding aft on a shallow beach, resulting in the vehicles being discharged into comparatively deep water. Various methods had been investigated to overcome the problem, but heavy grounding skegs and the N.

When offloading, the rafts were secured to the fore end of the ship, and the load discharged directly onto the shore, or towed on the raft to the shore. The ships were fitted out for service in both very cold and tropical conditions. The accommodation provided for both crew and army personnel was greatly improved compared with LST 2. The main hazard, apart from enemy action, was fire on the tank deck.

Fire sprinklers were provided, but the water drenching system installed in later American vessels could not be provided. The bow door arrangements were similar to the LST 2 , but the design arranged the bow ramp in two parts in an attempt to increase the number of beaches where direct discharge would be possible. The machinery for operating the bow doors and ramp were electrical, but otherwise, steam auxiliaries replaced the electrical gear on the LST 2.

The general arrangements of the tank deck were similar, but the design increased headroom and added a ramp to the top deck, as in later LST 2 s. Provision was made for carrying LCA on gravity davits instead of the American built assault boats. The arrangements were generally an improvement over the LST 2 , but suffered from a deeper draught, and, to some extent, from the haste of construction. The first orders were placed in December with British builders, and 35 with Canadian builders.

Swan Hunter delivered the first ships in December During , follow up orders were placed in Canada for a further These programmes were in full swing when the war ended, but not all vessels were completed. Fifteen ton tanks or 27 ton tanks could be carried on the tank deck with an additional fourteen lorries on the weather deck. Steam was supplied by a pair of Admiralty pattern 3-drum water-tube type boilers , working at pounds per square inch 1, kPa.

The main engines were of the 4-cylinder triple expansion 4-crank type, balanced on the Yarrow -Tweedy-Slick system, the cylinders being as follows:. The common stroke was 30 inches mm. The piston and slide valve rods were all fitted with metallic packing to the stuffing boxes, and all pistons fitted with packing rings and springs. The high-pressure valve was of the piston type, whilst the remaining ones were of the balanced type. The main engines were designed to develop 2, hp 2, kW at rpm continuously.

With the ships being twin screw, the engines were fitted with a shaft coupling to the crank shaft at the forward end, allowing the engine to be turned end to end to suit either port or starboard side fitting. The LCT needed lifting onto the deck of the ship, being carried on wedge-shaped support blocks; at the time of launching she was set down on the “launch ways” by simply slacking off bolts in the wedge blocks, allowing the launch way to take the weight.

To carry out a launch, the LST was simply heeled over about 11 degrees by careful flooding of tanks in the hull. The height of the drop was about 10 ft 3. This method was used for moving LCT5s from Britain to the Far East, although there seems to be no reference to LST 3 s being used, most being completed late in or after the war. Even at the end of the war there was a need for more ships able to carry minor landing craft, and two of the LST 3 s then completing were specially fitted to carry LCM 7.

These craft, which were 58 ft 18 m long and weighed about 28 tons, were carried transversely on the upper deck of the ship. They were hoisted on by means of a specially fitted ton derrick; This ton derrick replaced a ton derrick, two of which were the standard fit of the LST 3. The ton derrick was taller and generally more substantial than the 15 ton one. The LCM 7 s were landed on trolleys fitted with hydraulic jacks.

These ran on rails down each side of the deck, and were hauled to and fro by means of winches. The stowage was filled from fore to aft as each craft was jacked down onto fixed cradles between the rails.

While these ships were able to carry LCMs, they were only able to carry out loading and unloading operations under nearly ideal weather conditions, and therefore could not be used for assault operations; they also lacked the facilities to maintain the landing craft which the Dock Landing Ships provided. The Landing Craft Assault were wooden-hulled vessels plated with armour, 41 ft 6 in Draught was 2 ft 3 in 0.

Range was 50—80 miles 80— km miles on 64 imperial gallons l. Armament was typically a Bren light machine gun aft; with two Lewis Guns in a port forward position. Beaching draught was 3 ft 8 in 1. They were better armed with ten 20 mm Oerlikons and four 40 mm Bofors.

They had two Quonset huts erected on the main deck to accommodate 40 officers. Berths on the tank deck berthed an extra men. A bake shop and 16 refrigeration boxes for fresh provisions augmented the facilities normally provided for the crew.

Four extra distilling units were added, and the ballast tanks were converted for the storage of fresh water. At the Armor Training School in Ft. Knox, Kentucky, buildings were erected as exact mock-ups of an LST.

Tank crews in training learned how to maneuver their vehicles onto, in and from an LST with these facilities. One of these buildings has been preserved at Ft. Knox for historic reasons and can still be seen.

They participated in the invasions of Sicily Operation Husky , Italy , Normandy , and southern France in the European Theater and were an essential element in the island-hopping campaigns in the Pacific that culminated in the liberation of the Philippines and the capture of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Despite the large numbers produced, LSTs were a scarce commodity and Churchill describes the difficulty in retaining sufficient LSTs in the Mediterranean for amphibious work in Italy, and later the logistics of moving large numbers to the eastern theatres, while still supplying the large armies in Europe.

The LST proved to be a remarkably versatile ship. Thirty-nine of them were converted to become landing craft repair ships ARL. In this design, the bow ramp and doors were removed, and the bow was sealed. Derricks, booms, and winches were added to haul damaged landing craft on board for repairs, and blacksmith, machine, and electrical workshops were provided on the main deck and tank deck.

They supplemented the many standard LSTs, which removed casualties from the beach after landing tanks and vehicles. They possessed a special advantage in this role, as their size permitted two or three LSTs to go simultaneously alongside an anchored battleship or cruiser to accomplish replenishment more rapidly than standard ammunition ships.

In the period 6 June to 26 June Allied fighters controlled by the FDTs resulted in the destruction of 52 enemy aircraft by day, and 24 enemy aircraft by night. In the latter stages of World War II, some LSTs were fitted with flight decks that could launch small observation planes during amphibious operations.

It has been estimated that, in the combined fleets assembled for the war on Japan , the tonnage of landing ships, excluding landing craft, would have exceeded five million tons and nearly all built within four years. Throughout the war, LSTs demonstrated a remarkable capacity to absorb punishment and survive. Despite the sobriquets “Large Slow Target” and “Large Stationary Target,” which were applied to them by crew members, the LSTs suffered few losses in proportion to their number and the scope of their operations.

Their brilliantly conceived structural arrangement provided unusual strength and buoyancy; HMS LST was struck and holed in a post-war collision with a Victory ship and survived. Although the LST was considered a valuable target by the enemy, only 26 were lost due to enemy action, and a mere 13 were the victims of weather, reef, or accident. A total of 1, LSTs were contracted for in the great naval building program of World War II, but were cancelled in the fall of because of shifting construction priorities.

Hundreds of these were scrapped or sunk, and most of the remaining ships were put in “mothballs” to be preserved for the future. Additionally, many of the LSTs were demilitarized and sold to the private sector, along with thousands of other transport ships, contributing to a major downturn in shipbuilding in the United States following the war.

Many LSTs were used as targets in aquatic nuclear testing after the war, being readily available and serving no apparent military applications. World War II era LSTs have become somewhat ubiquitous, and have found a number of novel commercial uses, including operating as small freighters, ferries , and dredges.

Consequently, construction of LSTs in the immediate post-war years was modest. They provided improved berthing arrangements and a greater cargo capacity than their predecessors. This was in contrast with the earlier opinion expressed by many military authorities that the advent of the atomic bomb had relegated amphibious landings to a thing of the past. Couldn’t find the full form or full meaning of L. Maybe you were looking for one of these abbreviations: L.

Discuss these L. Notify me of new comments via email. Cancel Report. Create a new account. Log In. Know what is L. Got another good explanation for L. Don’t keep it to yourself! Add it HERE! Still can’t find the acronym definition you were looking for? Use our Power Search technology to look for more unique definitions from across the web!

Search the web. Rank Abbr. ST Subject to math. Statement Spender Audio Systems, Ltd. Subject to math. Spring Training baseball. Science And Technology. Standard Time. Sunday Times newspaper; various locations. Stores on-line ordering and catalog system. Stone British weight;14 pounds. Space Technology. Store IBM. Sound Track. Singapore Technologies technology-based multinational conglomerate.

Sales Tax. Science and Technology. Software Test. Seattle Times newspaper. Stream Experimental Protocol – Rfc Straight Time. It is clearly depicted that nighttime occurrence is much higher, with an occurrence peak at LST. This fact is more evident during the rainy seasons March-April and October-November.

LST Marketing offers strategic consulting, experiential activations, live event production, sponsorship strategy, sports and entertainment platforms, communications and celebrity talent integration. Logistics Support Team distance support and the evolving face of supply.

 
 

– Local Services Tax (LST)

 
 
LST, Local Standard Time ; LST, Liquid Storage Tank ; LST, Life-Sustaining Treatment ; LST, Lightning Strikes Twice (gaming). What does LST mean? This page is about the various possible meanings of the acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term: LST. ; LST. Local Standard Time.

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