What does e.m.p.i.r.e stand for imperialism
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An empire mentality may build on and bolster views contrasting “primitive” and “advanced” peoples and cultures, thus justifying and encouraging imperialist prractices among participants. The political concept social imperialism is a Marxist expression first used in the early 20th century by Lenin as “socialist in words, imperialist in deeds” describing the Fabian Society and other socialist organizations.
At least some of the great modern empires — the British, French, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and even the Ottoman — have virtues that have been too readily forgotten.
They provided stability, security, and legal order for their subjects. They constrained, and at their best, tried to transcend, the potentially savage ethnic or religious antagonisms among the peoples.
And the aristocracies which ruled most of them were often far more liberal, humane, and cosmopolitan than their supposedly ever more democratic successors.
A controversial aspect of imperialism is the defense and justification of empire-building based on seemingly rational grounds. In ancient China , Tianxia denoted the lands, space, and area divinely appointed to the Emperor by universal and well-defined principles of order.
The center of this land was directly apportioned to the Imperial court, forming the center of a world view that centered on the Imperial court and went concentrically outward to major and minor officials and then the common citizens, tributary states , and finally ending with the fringe ” barbarians “.
Tianxia’s idea of hierarchy gave Chinese a privileged position and was justified through the promise of order and peace. Hobson identifies this justification on general grounds as: “It is desirable that the earth should be peopled, governed, and developed, as far as possible, by the races which can do this work best, i.
Friedrich Ratzel believed that in order for a state to survive, imperialism was needed. Halford Mackinder felt that Great Britain needed to be one of the greatest imperialists and therefore justified imperialism. Under this doctrine, the French politician Jules Ferry could declare in that “Superior races have a right, because they have a duty.
They have the duty to civilize the inferior races. The Royal Geographical Society of London and other geographical societies in Europe had great influence and were able to fund travelers who would come back with tales of their discoveries.
Geographical theories such as environmental determinism also suggested that tropical environments created uncivilized people in need of European guidance. Technology and economic efficiency were often improved in territories subjected to imperialism through the building of roads, other infrastructure and introduction of new technologies. The principles of imperialism are often generalizable to the policies and practices of the British Empire “during the last generation, and proceeds rather by diagnosis than by historical description”.
The country of Australia serves as a case study in relation to British settlement and colonial rule of the continent in the 18th century, that was arguably premised on terra nullius , as its settlers considered it unused by its original inhabitants. The concept of environmental determinism served as a moral justification for the domination of certain territories and peoples. The environmental determinist school of thought held that the environment in which certain people lived determined those persons’ behaviours; and thus validated their domination.
For example, the Western world saw people living in tropical environments as “less civilized”, therefore justifying colonial control as a civilizing mission. Across the three major waves of European colonialism the first in the Americas, the second in Asia and the last in Africa , environmental determinism served to place categorically indigenous people in a racial hierarchy.
This takes two forms, orientalism and tropicality. Some geographic scholars under colonizing empires divided the world into climatic zones. These scholars believed that Northern Europe and the Mid-Atlantic temperate climate produced a hard-working, moral, and upstanding human being. In contrast, tropical climates allegedly yielded lazy attitudes, sexual promiscuity, exotic culture, and moral degeneracy. The people of these climates were believed to be in need of guidance and intervention from a European empire to aid in the governing of a more evolved social structure; they were seen as incapable of such a feat.
Similarly, orientalism could promote a view of a people based on their geographical location. Anti-imperialism gained a wide currency after the Second World War and at the onset of the Cold War as political movements in colonies of European powers promoted national sovereignty. Some anti-imperialist groups who opposed the United States supported the power of the Soviet Union , such as in Guevarism , while in Maoism this was criticized as social imperialism.
The Roman Empire was the post- Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe , North Africa , and Western Asia , ruled by emperors. The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the largest contiguous land empire in history. England’s imperialist ambitions can be seen as early as the 16th century as the Tudor conquest of Ireland began in the s.
Between and , the Kingdom of Scotland authorised several colonies in the Americas. Most of these colonies were either aborted or collapsed quickly for various reasons. Under the Acts of Union , the English and Scottish kingdoms were merged, and their colonies collectively became subject to Great Britain also known as the United Kingdom.
The empire Great Britain would go on to found was the largest empire that the world has ever seen both in terms of landmass and population. Its power, both military and economic, remained unmatched for a few decades. In , the Anglo-Mysore Wars and other political activity caused exploitation of the East India Company causing the plundering of the local economy, almost bringing the company into bankruptcy.
This competition was evident in the colonization of what is now known as Canada. Lawrence River and claiming it as “New France”. Following the proto-industrialization , the “First” British Empire was based on mercantilism , and involved colonies and holdings primarily in North America, the Caribbean, and India. Its growth was reversed by the loss of the American colonies in Britain made compensating gains in India, Australia, and in constructing an informal economic empire through control of trade and finance in Latin America after the independence of Spanish and Portuguese colonies in about Following the defeat of Napoleonic France in , Britain enjoyed a century of almost unchallenged dominance and expanded its imperial holdings around the globe.
Unchallenged at sea , British dominance was later described as Pax Britannica “British Peace” , a period of relative peace in Europe and the world — during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman. However, this peace was mostly a perceived one from Europe, and the period was still an almost uninterrupted series of colonial wars and disputes.
The British Conquest of India , its intervention against Mehemet Ali , the Anglo-Burmese Wars , the Crimean War , the Opium Wars and the Scramble for Africa to name the most notable conflicts mobilised ample military means to press Britain’s lead in the global conquest Europe led across the century. In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain; by the time of the Great Exhibition in the country was described as the “workshop of the world”.
Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, British dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many regions , such as Asia and Latin America. During this century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. A resurgence came in the late 19th century with the Scramble for Africa and major additions in Asia and the Middle East.
The pseudo-sciences of Social Darwinism and theories of race formed an ideological underpinning and legitimation during this time. But British power was fading, as the reunited German state founded by the Kingdom of Prussia posed a growing threat to Britain’s dominance. As of , Britain was the world’s fourth economy, behind the U.
S, Russia and Germany. Britain now had a practically continuous line of controlled territories from Egypt to Burma and another one from Cairo to Cape Town. However, this period was also the one of the emergence of independence movements based on nationalism and new experiences the colonists had gained in the war.
World War II decisively weakened Britain’s position in the world, especially financially. Decolonization movements arose nearly everywhere in the Empire, resulting in Indian independence and partition in , the self-governing dominions break away from the empire in , and the establishment of independent states in the s.
British imperialism showed its frailty in Egypt during the Suez Crisis in However, with the United States and Soviet Union emerging from World War II as the sole superpowers , Britain’s role as a worldwide power declined significantly and rapidly.
China was one of the world’s oldest empires. Due to its long history of imperialist expansion, China has been seen by its neighboring countries as a threat due to its large population, giant economy, large military force as well as its territorial evolution throughout history. Starting with the unification of China under the Qin dynasty , later Chinese dynasties continued to follow its form of expansions.
The most successful Chinese imperial dynasties in terms of territorial expansion were the Han , Tang , Yuan , and Qing dynasties.
Denmark—Norway Denmark after possessed overseas colonies from until In the 17th century, following territorial losses on the Scandinavian Peninsula , Denmark-Norway began to develop colonies, forts, and trading posts in West Africa , the Caribbean , and the Indian subcontinent. Christian IV first initiated the policy of expanding Denmark-Norway’s overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist wave that was sweeping Europe.
Denmark-Norway’s first colony was established at Tranquebar on India’s southern coast in Admiral Ove Gjedde led the expedition that established the colony. After , when Norway was ceded to Sweden, Denmark retained what remained of Norway’s great medieval colonial holdings. One by one the smaller colonies were lost or sold. Tranquebar was sold to the British in Iceland became independent in Today, the only remaining vestiges are two originally Norwegian colonies that are currently within the Danish Realm , the Faroe Islands and Greenland ; the Faroes were a Danish county until , while Greenland’s colonial status ceased in They are now autonomous territories.
Some analyses portray the geographical expansion and global influence of the European Union in terms of imperialism. During the 16th century, the French colonization of the Americas began with the creation of New France.
Its “Second colonial empire” began with the seizure of Algiers in and came for the most part to an end with the granting of independence to Algeria in France also twice attempted to make Mexico a colony in —39 and in see Pastry War and Second French intervention in Mexico.
French Republicans, at first hostile to empire, only became supportive when Germany started to build her own colonial empire. As it developed, the new empire took on roles of trade with France, supplying raw materials and purchasing manufactured items, as well as lending prestige to the motherland and spreading French civilization and language as well as Catholicism.
It also provided crucial manpower in both World Wars. In the leading exponent of colonialism, Jules Ferry declared France had a civilising mission : “The higher races have a right over the lower races, they have a duty to civilize the inferior”. The French colonial empire of extended over 11,, km 2 4,, sq mi at its height in the s and had a population of million people on the eve of World War II.
However, after anti-colonial movements began to challenge the Empire. France fought and lost a bitter war in Vietnam in the s. Whereas they won the war in Algeria, de Gaulle decided to grant Algeria independence anyway in French settlers and many local supporters relocated to France.
Nearly all of France’s colonies gained independence by , but France retained great financial and diplomatic influence. French colonial officials, influenced by the revolutionary ideal of equality, standardized schools, curricula, and teaching methods as much as possible. They did not establish colonial school systems with the idea of furthering the ambitions of the local people, but rather simply exported the systems and methods in vogue in the mother nation.
The result was to immerse the next generation of leaders in the growing anti-colonial diaspora centered in Paris. Impressionistic colonials could mingle with studious scholars or radical revolutionaries or so everything in between. Tunisia was exceptional. The colony was administered by Paul Cambon , who built an educational system for colonists and indigenous people alike that was closely modeled on mainland France.
He emphasized female and vocational education. By independence, the quality of Tunisian education nearly equalled that in France. African nationalists rejected such a public education system, which they perceived as an attempt to retard African development and maintain colonial superiority. One of the first demands of the emerging nationalist movement after World War II was the introduction of full metropolitan-style education in French West Africa with its promise of equality with Europeans.
In Algeria, the debate was polarized. The French set up schools based on the scientific method and French culture. The Pied-Noir Catholic migrants from Europe welcomed this. Those goals were rejected by the Moslem Arabs, who prized mental agility and their distinctive religious tradition.
The Arabs refused to become patriotic and cultured Frenchmen and a unified educational system was impossible until the Pied-Noir and their Arab allies went into exile after In South Vietnam from to there were two competing powers in education, as the French continued their work and the Americans moved in. They sharply disagreed on goals.
The French educators sought to preserving French culture among the Vietnamese elites and relied on the Mission Culturelle — the heir of the colonial Direction of Education — and its prestigious high schools. The Americans looked at the great mass of people and sought to make South Vietnam a nation strong enough to stop communism. The Americans had far more money, as USAID coordinated and funded the activities of expert teams, and particularly of academic missions. The French deeply resented the American invasion of their historical zone of cultural imperialism.
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Public and Nonprofit Management. Social Issues in Business and Management. Strategic Management. Supply Chain Management. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Criminal Justice. Forms of Crime. From the midth century onwards, Pradhan H Prasad argued , the former colonial powers no longer required military occupation for regional exploitation. They managed to evolve mechanisms where they could continue to exploit their former colonies economically by trapping them in various kinds of debt.
The dynamics of exploitation, of late, is being termed as ‘globalisation’. As globalisation gathers momentum, the neo-colonies sink deep in the quagmire of non-development, increasing joblessness, lumpenisation and criminalisation of the societies. The political economy of this dynamics can be perceived in the Indian case also. But even then, it continues to draw applause in from a large majority of Indians. What a strange phenomenon of ignorance?
Imperialism, in the 21st Century, comes in the form of global value chains GVC and global product networks, according to Dev Nathan. A GVC consists of all the processes that are involved in the creation of a product, which are spread all over the world. Each stage of a GVC adds value in such a manner that the very process of production has changed, which means that the nature of exploitation has changed. In the traditional Marxist sense, the export of capital was crucial to imperialism.
But in the 21st century, because of extreme specialisation of the production process, GVCs are able to generate value without directly exporting capital. What Erik Loomis is proposing is left-wing economic imperialism.
The gradual recognition of the constitutional theory of the British empire, and the assumption by the principal Imperialism. Already we had given Imperialism a criticism, and leavened half the press from our columns.
There is another side to imperialism besides dreaded anarchies. Marx with his book is driving the states out of the trench of imperialism and capitalism. Imperialism oftentimes involves the use of military and economic power, and always aims for more expansion and collective or individual domination. Historically, the term imperialism is connected to the notion of Empire, the political form of organization that arose in ancient times.
E.M.P.I.R.E. Engineering & Music Program Inspiring Rising Entrepreneurs – Paving Great Futures.Imperialism Definition & Meaning – Merriam-Webster
Imperialism in ancient times is clear in the history of China and in the history of western Asia and the Mediterranean—an unending succession of empires. Imperialism can be defined as a doctrine, political strategy, practice, state policy, or advocacy that consists in extending power by territorial. The original meaning of imperialism was a simple one: “imperial government,” that is, empire in the classical sense (such as existed in ancient Rome, China, and.
– What does e.m.p.i.r.e stand for imperialism
British. the policy of so uniting the separate parts of an empire with separate governments as to secure for certain purposes a single state. Imperialism can be defined as a doctrine, political strategy, practice, state policy, or advocacy that consists in extending power by territorial. The terms ’empire’ and ‘imperialism’, at their most general, have been used to refer to any and every type of relation between a more powerful state or.